Each country or federal land in the world has its own National Supervisory Authority for the Processing of Personal Data whose main responsibility is ensuring compliance with the laws regarding the protection of personal data by the national companies.
These Authorities are the ones that will apply sanctions in case of non-compliance with the legal obligations.
Any data subject who considers that the processing of his personal data violates the legal provisions has the right to file a complaint with these authorities.
The application of the corrective measures consists, depending on the country, in financial fines, in penal sanctions or in technical measures such as temporary or definitive limitation, the prohibition of processing, rectification or deletion of personal data, the restriction of processing, the notification of these actions to the recipients whose personal data has been disclosed.
IMPORTANT: The fines for non-compliance with the obligations to ensure the security of personal data are so high that they can even block the economic activity of the company.